FOR 12/7/05: THE MUSIC Of RODGERS AND HAMMERSTEIN
is from the Wikipedia,
the online encylopedia
and Hammerstein were an American songwriting duo consisting of
Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895–1960).
They are most famous for creating a string of immensely popular
Broadway musicals in the 1940s and 1950s, in what is considered
the golden age of their medium, including five shows that were
legendary successes: Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King
and I and The Sound of Music. Over the course of their collaboration,
their work and its adaptations garnered 34 Tony Awards, 15 Academy
Awards, two Pulitzer Prizes, two Grammy Awards, and two Emmy Awards,
among other theater accolades.
The pair wrote nine musicals together, and also collaborated on a musical film,
State Fair. As producers, they came together to bring Irving Berlin's Annie
Get Your Gun to the stage, leaving an indelible mark on American musical
theater and a legacy of successes that has never been equaled. Their joint
efforts continued over a twenty-year period, until Hammerstein's death
Previous work and early partnership
Rodgers had previously been in a successful partnership with Lorenz Hart; among
their Broadway hits were the shows Babes in Arms, Pal Joey, and A Connecticut
Yankee. Hammerstein, a co-writer of the popular Rudolf Friml operetta Rose-Marie,
began a successful collaboration with composer Jerome Kern on Sunny, which
was a great hit; their 1927 musical Show Boat is considered to be one of the
masterpieces of the American musical theatre. Hammerstein continued to work
with Kern and operetta composer Sigmund Romberg, among others, over the next
several years on shows such as Sweet Adeline, Music in the Air, and Very Warm
for May, a critical failure which nevertheless contained one of Kern and Hammerstein's
loveliest songs, "All the Things You Are."
As Lorenz Hart sank deeper into alcoholism and became more unreliable, it is
said that Rodgers went to Hammerstein and asked if he would consider the
possibility of working with him at some future date. They made a secret
arrangement, which came into force when Hart was not available to work
on the project which became Oklahoma. When working with Hart, Rodgers would
always write the music for Hart to wrote the lyrics. However when he teamed
up with Hammerstein, Hammerstein would write the lyrics first and then
Rodgers would write the music.
Oklahoma! (1943) marked a revolution in musical drama: While it was hardly
the first musical play to tell a story of emotional depth and psychological
complexity, Oklahoma! implemented a number of new storytelling techniques,
including focusing on emotional empathy; dealing with characters and situations
far removed from the audience by time and geography; dealing with American
historical and social materials; and the use of dance to convey plot and character
rather than mere diversion for the audience. The original production opened
on March 31, 1943 at the St. James Theatre in New York, was directed by Rouben
Mamoulian, and starred Betty Garde, Alfred Drake, Joan Roberts, Celeste Holm,
Joan McCracken, and Howard Da Silva. The production was choreographed by Agnes
de Mille, who provided one of the show's most notable and enduring features:
a 15-minute first-act ballet finale (often referred to as a dream ballet) arising
from Laurey's inability to make up her mind between Jud and Curly. The original
production ran for a then unprecedented 2212 performances, and closed on May
29, 1948. It was adapted into an Academy Award-winning musical film in 1955,
starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones (in her film debut), Rod Steiger, Gloria
Grahame, and Charlotte Greenwood. This film was shot twice, in the new 70mm
widescreen process of Todd-AO and again in the more established Cinemascope
process for theatres without 70mm film equipment.
" Oh What a Beautiful Mornin'"
" The Surrey With the Fringe On Top"
" Kansas City"
" I Can't Say No"
" Many a New Day"
" It's a Scandal! It's a Outrage!"
" People Will Say We're In Love"
" Pore Jud is Daid"
" Lonely Room"
" Out of My Dreams"
" Laurey Makes Up Her Mind" (Dream Ballet)
" The Farmer and the Cowman"
" Let People Say We're In Love"
" All Er Nuthin'"
" Oh What a Beautiful Mornin' (Reprise)"
The original production of Carousel was directed by Rouben Mamoulian and opened
at Broadway's Majestic Theatre on April 19, 1945, running for 890 performances
and closing on May 24, 1947. The original cast included John Raitt, Jan Clayton,
Jean Darling, Eric Mattson, Christine Johnson, Murvyn Vye, Bambi Linn, and
Carousel was also revolutionary for its time — it was one of the first
musicals to contain a tragic plot; the show was adapted from Ferenc Molnar's
You're a Queer One, Julie Jordan
If I Loved You
June Is Bustin' Out All Over
When the Children Are Asleep
Blow High, Blow Low
The Whalers' Hornpipe
A Real Nice Clambake
Geraniums in the Winder
A Man Who Thinks He's Good
What's the Use of Wond'rin'
You'll Never Walk Alone
The Highest Judge of All
Finale: You'll Never Walk Alone (reprise)
South Pacific opened on Broadway on April 7, 1949, and ran for more than five
years. A number of its songs, such as Bali Ha'i, Younger than Springtime, and
Some Enchanted Evening, have become worldwide standards. For their adaptation,
Rodgers and Hammerstein, along with co-writer Joshua Logan, won the Pulitzer
Prize for Drama in 1950. The play is based upon two short stories by James
A. Michener from his book Tales of the South Pacific, which itself was the
winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948. The original cast starred
Mary Martin as the heroine Nellie Forbush and opera star Ezio Pinza as Emile
de Becque, the French plantation owner. Also in the cast were Juanita Hall,
Myron McCormick, Betta St. John, and William Tabbert.
La vie est belle
A Cockeyed Optimist
Some Enchanted Evening
There's Nothing Like a Dame
I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair
I'm In Love With a Wonderful Guy
Younger Than Springtime
This is How it Feels
Younger Than Springtime
This Nearly Was Mine
The King and I
Based on Margaret Landon's Anna and the King of Siam, the biographical story
of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the
early 1860s, Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical The King and I opened on Broadway
on March 29, 1951 and starred Gertrude Lawrence as Anna, and a mostly unknown
Yul Brynner as the King.
It was later adapted for film, in 1956 with Brynner re-creating his role opposite
Deborah Kerr. Brynner won an Oscar as Best Actor for his portrayal, and Kerr
was nominated as Best Actress. Brynner reprised the role twice on Broadway
in 1977 and 1985, and in a short-lived TV sitcom in 1972, Anna and the King.
I Whistle a Happy Tune
My Lord and Master
March of the Siamese Children
Hello Young Lovers
Getting to Know You
We Kiss In a Shadow
Shall I Tell You What I Think of You?
Praise to Buddha
The Small House of Uncle Thomas (Siamese ballet)
Shall We Dance?
Something Wonderful (reprise)
The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music was Rodger and Hammerstein's last work together. It told
the story of the von Trapp family. It opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne
Theatre on November 16, 1959, and starred Mary Martin as Maria and Theodore
Bikel as Captain von Trapp. It later was made into a movie starring Julie Andrews
as Maria and Christopher Plummer as the Captain. The movie won five Oscars,
including best picture and best director, Robert Wise. Hammerstein did not
live to see the movie made. When Rodgers wrote two extra songs for the movie,
he wrote the lyrics also.
The Sound of Music
I Have Confidence (movie only)
Sixteen Going on Seventeen
My Favorite Things
How Can Love Survive
So Long, Farewell
Climb Ev'ry Mountain
No Way to Stop It (stage only)
Something Good (movie only)
An Ordinary Couple
The Lonely Goatherd
In addition to
their enduring work, Rodgers and Hammerstein were also honored in
1999 with a United States Postal Service stamp commemorating their
The Richard Rodgers Theater in New York City is named for Rodgers.
List of shows
(1945) State Fair (film) IMDB
(1949) South Pacific
(1951) The King and I
(1953) Me and Juliet
(1955) Pipe Dream
(1957) & (1997) Cinderella (tv)
(1958) Flower Drum Song
(1959) The Sound of Music