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WELCOME TO BROADWAY MEMORIES: MUSIC AND THE STARS


SHOW FOR 12/7/05: THE MUSIC Of RODGERS AND HAMMERSTEIN

The following is from the Wikipedia, the online encylopedia

Rodgers and Hammerstein were an American songwriting duo consisting of Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895–1960). They are most famous for creating a string of immensely popular Broadway musicals in the 1940s and 1950s, in what is considered the golden age of their medium, including five shows that were legendary successes: Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I and The Sound of Music. Over the course of their collaboration, their work and its adaptations garnered 34 Tony Awards, 15 Academy Awards, two Pulitzer Prizes, two Grammy Awards, and two Emmy Awards, among other theater accolades.


The pair wrote nine musicals together, and also collaborated on a musical film, State Fair. As producers, they came together to bring Irving Berlin's Annie Get Your Gun to the stage,[1] leaving an indelible mark on American musical theater and a legacy of successes that has never been equaled. Their joint efforts continued over a twenty-year period, until Hammerstein's death in 1960.

Previous work and early partnership
Rodgers had previously been in a successful partnership with Lorenz Hart; among their Broadway hits were the shows Babes in Arms, Pal Joey, and A Connecticut Yankee. Hammerstein, a co-writer of the popular Rudolf Friml operetta Rose-Marie, began a successful collaboration with composer Jerome Kern on Sunny, which was a great hit; their 1927 musical Show Boat is considered to be one of the masterpieces of the American musical theatre. Hammerstein continued to work with Kern and operetta composer Sigmund Romberg, among others, over the next several years on shows such as Sweet Adeline, Music in the Air, and Very Warm for May, a critical failure which nevertheless contained one of Kern and Hammerstein's loveliest songs, "All the Things You Are."


As Lorenz Hart sank deeper into alcoholism and became more unreliable, it is said that Rodgers went to Hammerstein and asked if he would consider the possibility of working with him at some future date. They made a secret arrangement, which came into force when Hart was not available to work on the project which became Oklahoma. When working with Hart, Rodgers would always write the music for Hart to wrote the lyrics. However when he teamed up with Hammerstein, Hammerstein would write the lyrics first and then Rodgers would write the music.

Oklahoma!
Oklahoma! (1943) marked a revolution in musical drama: While it was hardly the first musical play to tell a story of emotional depth and psychological complexity, Oklahoma! implemented a number of new storytelling techniques, including focusing on emotional empathy; dealing with characters and situations far removed from the audience by time and geography; dealing with American historical and social materials; and the use of dance to convey plot and character rather than mere diversion for the audience. The original production opened on March 31, 1943 at the St. James Theatre in New York, was directed by Rouben Mamoulian, and starred Betty Garde, Alfred Drake, Joan Roberts, Celeste Holm, Joan McCracken, and Howard Da Silva. The production was choreographed by Agnes de Mille, who provided one of the show's most notable and enduring features: a 15-minute first-act ballet finale (often referred to as a dream ballet) arising from Laurey's inability to make up her mind between Jud and Curly. The original production ran for a then unprecedented 2212 performances, and closed on May 29, 1948. It was adapted into an Academy Award-winning musical film in 1955, starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones (in her film debut), Rod Steiger, Gloria Grahame, and Charlotte Greenwood. This film was shot twice, in the new 70mm widescreen process of Todd-AO and again in the more established Cinemascope process for theatres without 70mm film equipment.

Musical Numbers
" Overture"
" Oh What a Beautiful Mornin'"
" The Surrey With the Fringe On Top"
" Kansas City"
" I Can't Say No"
" Many a New Day"
" It's a Scandal! It's a Outrage!"
" People Will Say We're In Love"
" Pore Jud is Daid"
" Lonely Room"
" Out of My Dreams"
" Laurey Makes Up Her Mind" (Dream Ballet)
" The Farmer and the Cowman"
" Let People Say We're In Love"
" All Er Nuthin'"
" Oklahoma!"
" Oh What a Beautiful Mornin' (Reprise)"

Carousel
The original production of Carousel was directed by Rouben Mamoulian and opened at Broadway's Majestic Theatre on April 19, 1945, running for 890 performances and closing on May 24, 1947. The original cast included John Raitt, Jan Clayton, Jean Darling, Eric Mattson, Christine Johnson, Murvyn Vye, Bambi Linn, and Russell Collins.
Carousel was also revolutionary for its time — it was one of the first musicals to contain a tragic plot; the show was adapted from Ferenc Molnar's play Liliom.

Musical Numbers
Act I
Carousel Waltz
You're a Queer One, Julie Jordan
Mister Snow
If I Loved You
June Is Bustin' Out All Over
When the Children Are Asleep
Blow High, Blow Low
The Whalers' Hornpipe
Soliloquy
Act II
A Real Nice Clambake
Geraniums in the Winder
A Man Who Thinks He's Good
What's the Use of Wond'rin'
You'll Never Walk Alone
The Highest Judge of All
Finale: You'll Never Walk Alone (reprise)

South Pacific
South Pacific opened on Broadway on April 7, 1949, and ran for more than five years. A number of its songs, such as Bali Ha'i, Younger than Springtime, and Some Enchanted Evening, have become worldwide standards. For their adaptation, Rodgers and Hammerstein, along with co-writer Joshua Logan, won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1950. The play is based upon two short stories by James A. Michener from his book Tales of the South Pacific, which itself was the winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948. The original cast starred Mary Martin as the heroine Nellie Forbush and opera star Ezio Pinza as Emile de Becque, the French plantation owner. Also in the cast were Juanita Hall, Myron McCormick, Betta St. John, and William Tabbert.

Musical Numbers
Act I
La vie est belle
A Cockeyed Optimist
Twin Soliloquies
Some Enchanted Evening
Bloody Mary
There's Nothing Like a Dame
Bali Ha'i
I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair
I'm In Love With a Wonderful Guy
Younger Than Springtime
This is How it Feels
Younger Than Springtime
Act II
Happy Talk
Honey Bun
Carefully Taught
This Nearly Was Mine

The King and I
Based on Margaret Landon's Anna and the King of Siam, the biographical story of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s, Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical The King and I opened on Broadway on March 29, 1951 and starred Gertrude Lawrence as Anna, and a mostly unknown Yul Brynner as the King.
It was later adapted for film, in 1956 with Brynner re-creating his role opposite Deborah Kerr. Brynner won an Oscar as Best Actor for his portrayal, and Kerr was nominated as Best Actress. Brynner reprised the role twice on Broadway in 1977 and 1985, and in a short-lived TV sitcom in 1972, Anna and the King.

Musical Numbers
Act I
Overture
I Whistle a Happy Tune
My Lord and Master
March of the Siamese Children
Hello Young Lovers
A Puzzlement
Getting to Know You
We Kiss In a Shadow
Shall I Tell You What I Think of You?
Something Wonderful
Praise to Buddha
Act II
The Small House of Uncle Thomas (Siamese ballet)
Shall We Dance?
Something Wonderful (reprise)

The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music was Rodger and Hammerstein's last work together. It told the story of the von Trapp family. It opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on November 16, 1959, and starred Mary Martin as Maria and Theodore Bikel as Captain von Trapp. It later was made into a movie starring Julie Andrews as Maria and Christopher Plummer as the Captain. The movie won five Oscars, including best picture and best director, Robert Wise. Hammerstein did not live to see the movie made. When Rodgers wrote two extra songs for the movie, he wrote the lyrics also.

Musical Numbers
Act One
The Sound of Music
Maria
I Have Confidence (movie only)
Do-Re-Mi
Sixteen Going on Seventeen
My Favorite Things
How Can Love Survive
Laendler
So Long, Farewell
Climb Ev'ry Mountain
Act II
No Way to Stop It (stage only)
Something Good (movie only)
An Ordinary Couple
The Lonely Goatherd
Edelweiss
Finale Ultimo

Legacy

In addition to their enduring work, Rodgers and Hammerstein were also honored in 1999 with a United States Postal Service stamp commemorating their partnership.
The Richard Rodgers Theater in New York City is named for Rodgers.

List of shows
(1943) Oklahoma!
(1945) Carousel
(1945) State Fair (film) IMDB
(1947) Allegro
(1949) South Pacific
(1951) The King and I
(1953) Me and Juliet
(1955) Pipe Dream
(1957) & (1997) Cinderella (tv)
(1958) Flower Drum Song
(1959) The Sound of Music

 

Copyright 2005 Production staff of Broadway Memories and Richter Digital Arts